1. Bennett, J. and CM Brown. 2000. Use of Herbal Remedies by Patients in a Health Maintenance Organization. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 40(3):353-358.
2. Anon. 2000. Consumer Use of Dietary Supplements. A Publication of Prevention Magazine.
3. Akerele, O. 1992. WHO Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines. Fitoterapia 63(2):99-104.
4. The broad category of "dietary supplements" was legally defined in 1994 by Congress' unanimous passage of a law called the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, or DSHEA.
5. Schultes, RE and RF Raffauf. 1990. The Healing Forest.
6. Garrison, J. Two Toddlers Died from Oleander Poisoning, Coroner Says. Los Angeles Times: July 26, 2000.
7. Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, Section 301(a).
8. Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, Section 350b(a)(2).
9. Bennett, J. and CM Brown. 2000. Use of Herbal Remedies by Patients in a Health Maintenance Organization. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 40(3):353-358.
10. Farnsworth, NR. 1993. Relative Safety of Herbal Medicines. HerbalGram 29.
11. Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, Section 201(n).
12. McGuffin, M., C. Hobbs, R. Upton, and A. Goldberg. 1997. Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Available from AHPA.
13. Leathwood, PD, et al. 1982. Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L) improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 17(1):65-71.
14. Donath, F, et al. 2000. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry 33(2):47-53.
15. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, Public Law 103-417, 103rd Congress
16. Donath, F., et al. 2000. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry 33(2):47-53.
17. Bach, D. and L. Ebeling. 1996. Long-term drug treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia - results of a prospective 3-year multicenter study using Sabal extract IDS 89. Phytomedicine 3(2):105-111.
18. Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, Section 402(f).
19. Government Printing Office. 2000. Title 21 Code of Federal Regulation, Section 101.36. There are exemptions to the requirement for labeled "Supplement Facts," which includes a statement of serving size, for specifically identified small businesses and for foods in small packages. Exempt manufacturers nevertheless generally provide information about recommended serving.
20. Government Printing Office. 2000. Title 21 Code of Federal Regulation, Section 110. "Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding human food."
21. Government Printing Office. Revised Feb. 7, 2000. Title 21 Code of Federal Regulation, Section 101.93. "Certain types of statements for dietary supplements."
22. Henney, J. Statement By Jane E. Henney, MD, Commissioner, Food And Drug Administration, Department Of Health And Human Services, Before The Committee On Government Reform, U.S. House Of Representatives. March 25, 1999.
23. Bailey DG, et al. 1991. Interaction of citrus juices with felodipine and nifedipine. Lancet 337(8736):268-9.
24. Bailey DG, et al. 1998. Grapefruit juice-drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 46(2):101-10
25. Wells, PS, et al. 1994. Interactions of warfarin with drugs and food. Annals of Internal Medicine 121(9):676-83.
26. Johne A, et al. 1999. Pharmacokinetic interaction of digoxin with an herbal extract from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Clin Pharmacol Ther 66(4):338-45.
27. Piscitelli SC, et al. 2000. Indinavir concentrations and St John's wort [letter]. Lancet 355(9203):547-8.
28. Some concern has been stated regarding a conceptual danger in "unknown" herbal combinations. This point of view is apparently uninformed about the historic acceptance of herbal formulas, and is no more relevant to herbal ingredients combined in a supplement product than it would be to the creation of an innovative recipe in your kitchen.
29. Indeed, there is a common misconception in the U.S. that standardization is equivalent to adding purified compounds to an herb in order to achieve a desired level of the marker compound. In fact, nothing could be further from the truth. The addition of purified compounds in order to achieve "standardization" actually defeats the purpose of standardization.